Les noms des l'histoire : Essai de poétique du savoir by Jacques Rancière

By Jacques Rancière

Une histoire, au sens ordinaire, c'est une série d'événements qui arrivent à des sujets généralement désignés par des noms propres. Or l. a. révolution de l. a. technological know-how historique a voulu révoquer le primat des événements et des noms propres au revenue des longues durées et de l. a. vie des anonymes. C'est ainsi qu'elle a revendiqué en même temps son appartenance à l'âge de l. a. technological know-how et à l'âge de l. a. démocratie.

Mais l'âge de l. a. démocratie et de l. a. technology des grands nombres est aussi celui du difficulty littéraire et révolutionnaire : de l. a. multiplication des paroles, des récits séduisants et des mots excessifs. Des rois y perdent leur tête et los angeles rationalité semble parfois s'y abîmer.

Les historiens veulent garder leur tête et connaître les choses en les dépouillant de leurs noms trompeurs. Mais les choses de l'histoire ont cette propriété déroutante de s'évanouir quand on veut les rendre à leur uncomplicated réalité. l. a. limite de los angeles croyance scientiste en histoire, c'est l'évanouissement de l'histoire elle-même, le nihilisme révisionniste et l. a. rumeur désenchantée de los angeles fin de l'histoire.

Il apparaît alors que l'histoire, pour devenir technology sans se perdre elle-même, a besoin de quelques excursions de littérature : une autre manière de raconter l. a. mort des rois, un autre utilization des temps du récit et l'invention de personnages d'un style nouveau, les témoins muets. C'est seulement ainsi qu'elle peut articuler en un seul discours un triple contrat scientifique, narratif et politique.

Dans ce livre, Jacques Rancière suggest une poétique du savoir : étude de l'ensemble des procédures littéraires par lesquelles un discours se soustrait à l. a. littérature, se donne un statut de technology et le signifie. l. a. poétique du savoir s'intéresse aux règles selon lesquelles un savoir s'écrit et se lit comme discours spécifique. Elle cherche à définir le mode de vérité auquel il se voue.

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Angus Fletcher, commenting upon the later Wittgenstein’s rather ambivalent vision of Shakespeare, notes that Wittgenstein is wholly metaphoric in characterizing him. I am fascinated that Fletcher is less concerned than I am about Wittgenstein’s Tolstoyan reservations in regard to Shakespeare. Wittgenstein found Shakespeare too English, which is like asserting that Tolstoy was too Russian.  L. Austin, and Wittgenstein. “Deprecation” is not at all the precise word for Wittgenstein’s stance toward Shakespeare, but what he extends with rhetorical open palm he qualifies with clenched fist.

Michael Johnson, his father, was fifty-two when Samuel, his first child, was born. The father kept a bookshop in the town of Lichfield. A melancholy man, and a failure at all things, during his final months he asked his son, himself given to “vile melancholy,” to attend his bookstall for him in a nearby town. Johnson’s pride prevented him and he refused his father, who died soon after. ” The human sorrow and complexity of Samuel Johnson are caught in that bare hour, open to the elements and public mockery.

The miracle of Shakespearean representation is its contaminating power: one hundred major characters and a thousand adjacent figures throng our streets and sidle into our lives. Dickens and Balzac, Austen and Proust more selectively have something of this force to contaminate a heterocosm. Joyce, had he chosen, might have excelled them all, but he isolated his energy upon language, allowing only Leopold Bloom—Poldy—a Shakespearean variety and scope in personality and character. Joyce envied Shakespeare his audience at the Globe, which had the amplitude to allow an art that appealed to all social classes and degrees of literacy.

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