By Anguan Wu, Baoshan Ni

**Presents the basics and calculation of transmission line losses, their aid, and fiscal implications **

• Written through a truly skilled professional during this field

• Introduces a number of technical measures for loss aid, and appended with plenty of examples

• bargains a revolutionary and systematic method of numerous points of the problems

• A well timed and unique publication to satisfy the demanding situations of energy and grid improvement

**Read Online or Download Line loss analysis and calculation of electric power systems PDF**

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**Additional info for Line loss analysis and calculation of electric power systems**

**Example text**

5a. 9, there are 10 F( f ) curves which are limited in a small area with the F( f ) curve at β = 0 and F = f 2 as boundaries. 5: (i) the family of F( f ) curves should meet three constraints, that is f ≥ β, f ≥ tmax and f ≤ (1–t0); (ii) subject to the restrictions of four parameters, the value range of F( f ) is limited to a small range, indicating that more information about the characteristics of load curves can reduce errors in F value calculated by a single f value; and (iii) the shape of load curves has a significant influence on the loss factor.

2 Table of f/F values for nine ideal load curves with four variables (tmax = 0, tmin = 0, t0 = 0). 2 lists data of the family of curves when tmax=0, tmin=0 and t0=0. 5a. 9, there are 10 F( f ) curves which are limited in a small area with the F( f ) curve at β = 0 and F = f 2 as boundaries. 5: (i) the family of F( f ) curves should meet three constraints, that is f ≥ β, f ≥ tmax and f ≤ (1–t0); (ii) subject to the restrictions of four parameters, the value range of F( f ) is limited to a small range, indicating that more information about the characteristics of load curves can reduce errors in F value calculated by a single f value; and (iii) the shape of load curves has a significant influence on the loss factor.

1 Approximation of load duration curve. 1, I4 is the minimum current, and if expressed by per unit value, is the minimum load rate β. The probability that current is greater than or equal to I4 is 1, representing a certain event. This is the probability meaning of the minimum load rate. 1) shows that the mathematical expectation of current random variables is the average current within the measuring period, that is the load rate when the current is expressed per unit value. According to the probability theory, the mathematical expectation is a weighted average with probability as the weight, so the load factor of the current load curve is a weighted average of current random variables with occurrence time probability as the weight.