By Jean-Louis Cohen, G. Martin Moeller
Produced at a expense of ﬁve billion cubic yards in line with yr, concrete is the second one most generally ate up substance on the earth, after water. it really is ubiquitous and simply taken with no consideration because the stuff of sidewalks and roads, strength vegetation and parking garages. Concrete is usually, in spite of the fact that, a popular fabric of state-of-the-art architects and engineers, who price not just its versatility and energy yet its limitless strength for imaginitive expression. A hybrid substance made of cement, water, sand, and mineral aggregates, concreteor liquid stonehas no intrinsic shape. within the palms of proficient designers, its final visual appeal is dictated through the framework into which it really is poured and the colour, texture, or trend utilized to its floor.
In a chain of essays by way of most sensible architects, engineers, and students, Liquid Stone explores the character of concrete, its earlier and destiny, from technical, inventive, and historic views. Over thirty structures through top foreign architects together with Jean Nouvel, Herzog & de Meuron, Zaha Hadid, Steven Holl, Norman Foster, and Santiago Calatrava are offered via certain descriptions, pictures, and technical drawings.
The e-book concludes with "The way forward for Concrete," a bankruptcy on newly rising fabrics. the following self-consolidated, ultra-high-performance, and translucent concrete are illustrated, introducing the subsequent new release in concrete know-how and suggesting new instructions for either structure and engineering.
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Additional resources for Liquid Stone: New Architecture in Concrete
For Michelis, the buildings that best demonstrated concrete’s potential were works like the Centre National des Industries et Techniques designed by Nicolas Esquillan (1902–1989) in Paris (1958), or Eero Saarinen’s TWA Terminal in Queens, New York (1962). [Figure 4] But at exactly the same time as Michelis was arguing that shells were the correct use of concrete, Le Corbusier was building in béton brut, which with its messiness and considerable redundancy of material presented an aesthetic totally at variance with the refinement of shell structures.
But Paul Rudolph (1918–1997), in his Art and Architecture Building (1963), also at Yale, was to change all that. A virtuoso response to a complex program, the building was made of a reinforced concrete structure enveloped with one-foot-thick concrete walls. 21 [Figure 9] The crafting of the striated envelope was achieved by pouring concrete into vertically ribbed wooden forms. After the molds were removed, the ridged surfaces were hand-hammered to expose the aggregate. [Figure 10] The resulting texture had a tactile quality that created an unexpected effect: that of physical roughness.
For the majority of practitioners, the mongrel features of concrete are shameful, and they have generally tried to obscure or disguise them so as to make concrete appear a pedigree material. Yet the reality is otherwise, and it has to be said that the more interesting works in concrete are often those that recognize concrete’s ambiguous nature: it can be both liquid and solid, smooth and rough, backward and advanced, worthless and precious, and, as these Italian examples demonstrate, historical and unhistorical.