By M. T. Sprackling (auth.)

6. 2 Creeping viscous movement in a semi-infinite channel a hundred and forty 6. three Poiseuille circulation in tubes of round cross-section a hundred and forty four 6. four movement of a Newtonian liquid among coaxial cylinders 148 151 6. five our bodies in drinks 6. 6 liquid circulation and intermolecular forces 154 Non-Newtonian drinks 157 6. 7 6. eight Viscometers a hundred and sixty bankruptcy 7 floor results 163 7. 1 advent 163 7. 2 extra floor loose strength and floor rigidity of beverages 163 7. three the entire floor power of drinks 167 7. four floor rigidity and intermolecular forces 168 7. five strong surfaces 171 7. 6 particular floor loose strength and the intermolecular power 172 7. 7 liquid surfaces and the Laplace-Young equation 174 7. eight liquid spreading 178 7. nine Young's relation 181 7. 10 Capillary results 184 7. eleven The sessile drop 187 7. 12 Vapour strain and liquid-surface curvature 189 7. thirteen The dimension of floor unfastened energies 191 bankruptcy eight excessive polymers and liquid crystals 197 eight. 1 advent 197 eight. 2 excessive polymers 197 eight. three The mechanisms of polymerisation 198 eight. four the dimensions and form of polymer molecules 199 eight. five The constitution of good polymers 201 eight. 6 The glass transition temperature 203 eight. 7 Young's modulus of good polymers 205 Stress-strain curves of polymers eight. eight 206 eight. nine Viscous circulate in polymers 209 liquid crystals 8.

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39] shows that q, is equal to Ero on this model. 5 nm, which gives a value of 50 N m for q, and, using the expression for Po, gives a value of the order of 1012 Hz for the Einstein frequency. 11 Strain energy Work must be done by the external forces acting on a body when the latter deforms and in the case of an elastic solid all this work is stored as potential energy of the distorted solid, or strain energy. The whole of this stored energy may be recovered when the external forces are removed from the elastic solid reversibly.

38] for Young's modulus. 39] where q, is a constant characteristic of the molecules concerned, and known as the force constant. Let one molecule in a row parallel to the x direction be displaced by a small amount 6r, the others remaining ftxed. Since only nearest neighbour interactions in the row are being considered, the restoring force on the displaced molecule due to the ftxed molecule on one side is -q,6r, and that due to the ftxed molecule on the other side is also -q,6r, though one force is attractive and the other repulsive.

If U, V, Ware respectively, the displacements of Pin thex,y and z directions, referred to the original axes, the respective displacement of A in the x direction is: U + (au/ax)dx so that ex = aU/ax and similarly: ey = av/ay = aw/az. and: ez The displacement of the point A in the y direction is V + (av/ax)dx while that of the point B in the x direction is U + (aU/ay)dy. These displacements cause the inscribed line P'A' to make an angle equal to tan- 1 (aV/ax) with the initial direction. Similarly, P'B' is inclined to its original direction by the angle tan-1(aU/ay).