By Ivan Valiela
Marine Ecological Processes is a latest overview and synthesis of marine ecology that offers the reader - really the graduate scholar - with a lucid advent to the highbrow suggestions, methods, and techniques of this evolving self-discipline. accomplished in its insurance, this booklet makes a speciality of the tactics controlling marine ecosystems, groups, and populations and demonstrates how common ecological ideas - derived from terrestrial and freshwater structures to boot - follow to marine ecosystems. quite a few illustrations, examples, and references essentially impart to the reader the present country of analysis during this box; its achievements in addition to unresolved controversies.
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Additional resources for Marine Ecological Processes
0 WAVELE NGTH Cum) FIGURE 2-1. Absorption of solar radiation in the atmosphere and at depths of 10,50, and 75m in the sea. Adapted from Valley (1965) and Jerlov (1951). 6I/m) is very effectively absorbed in the very upper layers of the water column. Marine organisms are left with a rather narrow window of wavelengths to use. absorbers in the non visible ranges. Clouds may reduce radiation reaching the sea, and some solar energy is lost by scattering and reflection at the sea surface. When the sun is low in the sky or during rough seas, over 30% of radiation may be lost; on calm, clear days when the sun is high in the sky loss via these mechanisms is only a few percent of incident radiation (Von Arx, 1962).
Such methods provide estimates of net above-ground production; Hopkinson et a1. (1980) compare various alternative methods applied to salt marsh production. Leaf or frond marking methods have also been used. Growth and production in kelp have been measured by punching small holes at the "These observations include (a) measurements of changes in O 2, CO2 , and dissolved organic carbon that suggest that CO 2 consumed or O 2 released exceeds primary production as measured by 14C [Shulenberger and Reid (1981) and studies summarized in Johnson et al.
FIGURE 1-11. Kelp forests. Top: Surface view of a Macrocystis stand near Oudekraal, South Africa. Photo by John Field. Middle: View of a kelp forest off Catalina Island, California, United States. The canopy is formed by Macrocystis pyrifera with an understory of Eisenia arborea . S. Foster. Bottom: Diagrammatic section through kelp forest off Point Santa Cruz, California . Adapted from Yellin et al. (1977) . 18 1. Producers and Processes Involved in Primary Production times are responsible for a major portion of the reef-building activity.