By Nils Chr. Stenseth, Geir Ottersen, James W. Hurrell, Andrea Belgrano
This learn point textual content specializes in the impression of weather variability at the marine ecosystems of the North Atlantic. The ecological effect of weather variability on inhabitants dynamics is addressed on the complete variety of trophic degrees, from phytoplankton via zooplankton and fish to marine birds. weather results on biodiversity and group constitution also are tested. forty scientists from all over the world synthesise what's presently identified approximately how weather impacts the ecological structures of the North Atlantic after which position those insights inside of a broader ecological viewpoint. the various common positive aspects of the North Atlantic sector also are obvious in different marine ecosystems in addition to terrestrial and freshwater structures. the ultimate component to the e-book makes those generalities extra particular, as a way to stimulate verbal exchange and advertise co-operation among researchers who may well formerly have labored in semi-isolation.
The ebook includes five major sections: heritage (general advent, atmospheric and ocean weather of the North Atlantic, and modelling methodology), plankton populations (phytoplankton and zooplankton), fish and seabird populations, neighborhood ecology (phytoplankton, benthos and fish), and the ultimate part inclusive of six commentaries from scientists operating in parts outdoor the North Atlantic marine area. with the intention to improve integration, a sequence of introductions hyperlink chapters and sections. during the e-book, a variety of examples spotlight varied facets of ecology-climate interactions. They record contemporary growth and illustrate the demanding situations of attempting to comprehend ecological procedures and styles within the gentle of weather variations.
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Extra info for Marine Ecosystems and Climate Variation: The North Atlantic: A Comparative Perspective
2 Winter (December–March) index of the NAO based on the difference of normalized SLP between Lisbon, Portugal, and Stykkisholmur/Reykjavik, Iceland from 1864 through 2000. g. 1950 is December 1949–March 1950). The average winter SLP data at each station were normalized by division of each seasonal pressure by the long-term mean (1864–1983) standard deviation. The heavy solid line represents the index smoothed to remove fluctuations with periods less than 4 years. with differences depending mostly on the details of the analysis procedure (Deser 2000; Wallace 2000).
It is most clearly identified when timeaveraged data (monthly or seasonal) are examined, since time averaging reduces the ‘noise’ of smallscale and transient meteorological phenomena not related to large-scale climate variability. The spatial signature and temporal variability of the NAO are usually defined through the regional SLP field, for which some of the longest instrumental records exist. It is also readily apparent in meteorological data to the lower stratosphere, however, where the ‘seesaw’ in mass between the polar cap and the middle latitudes is much more zonally symmetric.
1 Mean state and variability By the end of the nineteenth century, a surprisingly modern distribution of hydrographic stations had already traced out the basic physical geography of the North Atlantic Ocean and Nordic Seas. The properties of the upper ocean reflect a two-gyre structure with warm waters circulating anticyclonically in a subtropical gyre to the south and east and cold waters circulating cyclonically in a subpolar gyre to the north and west (Fig. 5). The main North Atlantic 100 ° 70 ° N W 80 ° 60 ° 40 ° 20 ° 0° 20 ° Sb 1979 Eg Wg 8 4 1981–82 2 1968 Ni Ei 1 60 ° 3 40 ° 70 ° N E Nc 2 1978–79 3 Ng 1977–78 60 ° 2 1969–70 Wg 1976 Eg Subpolar gyre 2 4 1972 4 La 50 ° 1976 1977–78 7 1979 1975 50 ° Na NAC 4 1971–72 1977 1974?