By W. John Richardson, Charles I. Malme, Denis H. Thomson, Charles R. Greene
Discusses how good marine animals pay attention, how noisy the oceans became, and what results those new sounds have on marine mammals.
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Discusses how good marine animals listen, how noisy the oceans became, and what results those new sounds have on marine mammals.
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Extra resources for Marine Mammals and Noise
Several other features are also important. High signal-to-noise ratio and wide dynamic range are critical in recording variable sounds 42 Chapter 3. Measurement Procedures and in determining the levels of weak components accompanying strong components. Even with a high-quality analog recorder, it can be difficult to obtain reliable data for bands containing weak sound components when much stronger components are present in other bands. ) Additional important features include low distortion, low wow and flutter, and—in multi-channel recordings—good channel separation.
2 Sound Sensors 39 emetry range varies from a few kilometers to a few tens of kilometers. Sonobuoys operate for 1-8 hours, and later sink. Sonobuoy sensitivity as a function of frequency is designed to fall within a reasonably narrow range, such as ±3 dB across a defined band (Fig. IB). Some types are individually calibrated. Although sonobuoy data are less precise than could be obtained from a highquality hydrophone, sonobuoys can provide meaningful data on sound level in relation to frequency in situations where hydrophones cannot be used.
The latter information is important in determining source levels, directionality, and frequency spectrum (Watkins 1980b). However, captive animals may not produce the full repertoire of species-specific calls, and the strongest calls emitted in a small tank may be weaker than some calls by free-ranging individuals.