By Sir Bernard Lovell O.B.E., F.R.S. (auth.), Eugene Rabinowitch, Richard S. Lewis (eds.)
AFTER THE LUNAR touchdown Our quandary during this quantity is the influence upon technology, know-how and overseas cooperation of man's emer gence from the "cradle," the biosphere of Earth, to go to the skin of one other planet. The editors invited specialists within the actual and social sciences who have been imagine ing, speaking and writing approximately house courses for a very long time. a few were severe of manned house flight, its reasons and its expenditures. a few were or are at present fascinated by venture Apollo. a few had now not dedicated themselves to price judgments yet have been fascinated about possible effects. more often than not, the authors regard the moon touchdown as a climactic occasion in man's evolution. Sir Bernard Lovell is probably going to have a cataclysmic impression on society indicates it and that a global attempt could be fixed to ship males to Mars within the Eighties. The query of ways undertaking Apollo pertains to a scheme of priorities which takes under consideration such wishes as housing, healthiness, toxins and the issues of urbaniza tion enters the dialogue from a number of issues of view. Eugene Rabinowitch means that Apollo could stimulate the improvement of a approach of building nationwide priorities within the software of the nation's assets. Freeman Dyson, however, doesn't think that ix PREFACE x any "hierarchy of committees" can devise an permitted order of priorities.
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Extra resources for Men in Space: The Impact on Science, Technology, and International Cooperation
Next, and immediately after this successful Soviet manned space flight, Nikita Khrushchev gave voice to a spread eagle threat: The USSR, said he, could replace its cosmonauts with megaton nuclear bombs that could be directed to any place on earth. Third, while the Soviet success shook the foundations of American prestige around the world, those foundations were shaken from another side by the bumbling management in the White House which led to the Bay of Pigs fiasco. Fourth, and on top of everything else, though President Kennedy in the 1960 election contest had promised "to get America moving again," the nation's economy in the early 1960s remained sluggish, and the Congress showed little inclination to revive it by approving various domestic measures then under discussion.
Also in the immediate background of both ventures was a distinctive expansion of the human mind-the Renaissance in the first case, and the post-World War II explosion in science 42 SIDNEY HYMAN and technology in the second. At their inception, the scientific underpinning for both projects combined a mixture of observed fact, conjectures, free wheeling assumptions, legends-many of which later underwent correction. In both cases also, the purely scientific aspects of the project could not by themselves have commanded "state support" on any significant scale if it were not for the fact that both were tied at the hip-bone to politicaleconomic-military aims.
Soon after Columbus returned to Spain from his first voyage into the New World, Pope Alexander VI issued bulls confirming to the Crowns of Castile and Leon all the lands discovered, or to be discovered west of a line of demarcation drawn 100 leagues west of the Azores on the same terms as those in which the Portuguese held their colonies along the African coast. Discovery in this case meant sovereign national possession, and sovereign national possession in turn meant the freedom of the sovereign to act as it pleased within the boundaries possessed.