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Extra resources for MICROWAVE HEATING
Alternatively, some thermosets can be compression molded into the desired part. In this case, heat acts to initiate the reaction to cross-link the polymer chains. A high cross-link density, the number of cross-links per unit area, defines thermoset morphology. It is this chemical structure that leads to their characteristic mechanical behavior. 4). A large modulus means when undergoing deformation an excessive amount of force must be applied before there is a change in strain. Excessive force is required to break the chemical crosslinks and allow the polymeric chains to elongate.
It is measured in units of length, typically nanometers (nm). One apex and one trough define a cycle. Frequency (ν) is the number of cycles that pass a point in space, typically measured in cycles per second or hertz (1 Hz = 1s–1). 1). Frequency is equivalent to the speed of light (c = 299,792,458 m/s) divided by the wavelength, measured in meters (m). Therefore, an inverse relationship exists between energy and wavelength. For instance, lower wavelengths have higher energy. 1) The intensity of the light is measured by spectral irradiance, the energy luminating an area, measured in watts per square meter–nanometer (W/(m 2 • nm)).
2 Underwriters Laboratories The Underwriters Laboratories (UL) is an independent third-party safety certification board for consumer products and materials. Founded in 1894 by William Merrill, an electrical engineer, its history and focus are in the disciplines of thermal and safety sciences. Within the past decade, the company has expanded. Currently, it has customers in 102 countries and world recognition for its certification processes and logo. UL is currently composed of two business units, a nonprofit business chartered to perform fire and safety research to aid in the development of standards, and a for-profit certification board [6,7].