Modern African Wars: Angola and Mozambique 1961-74 by Peter Abbott, Ronald Volstad

By Peter Abbott, Ronald Volstad

Portugal was once the 1st and final of the good eu colonial powers. In 1960 the Portuguese flag nonetheless flew over mammoth expanses of African territory, and endured to fly there whereas others have been busy granting independence to their African colonies. It used to be now not until eventually 1975 that it was once ultimately compelled down. The trained mestiços and assimilados have been good conscious of what used to be taking place in different territories. They have been inspired by way of the truth that the Portuguese territories had began to discover themselves surrounded by way of newly self sufficient states whose governments have been sympathetic to the reason for African nationalism. It appeared that their time had come.

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If that restoration is accepted, nine soldiers were probably sent on some mission in Gaul. The fragmentary nature of this line, however, prevents further speculation. It should be noted, however, that certainly not all the textile products found in Vindolanda came from outside. GAL. D. 28 Translation: The detachment of the First Legion the Helper gave this gift to Aemilianus, a clothes dealer taking care of business in Gaul. Legio I Adiutrix was perhaps founded under Nero. Because of the absence of the honorary cognomen P(iae) F(idelis), which was awarded to the legion by Trajan, it is possible that the inscription is dated to the late first century AD.

48. Bihsop and Coulston 2006, 110. 49. Bishop and Coulston speak of the “impossibility of stealth” while wearing an apron, but stress that a whole legion marching past must have made quite an impressive sound (Bishop and Coulston 2006, 110). See for instance two funerary monuments from Greece (von Moock 1998, no. 85, 241) and the signifier on the left side of the Great Trajanic Frieze on Constantine’s arch (Koeppel 1985, cat no. 9, fig. 15). 51. Bishop and Coulston 2006, 83. 52. The shorter 1st century sword was probably drawn with the right hand by dipping the mouth of the sheath forward with the thumb and then extracting the sword with the right hand (Hoss, forthcoming).

The female counterpart of the toga was the stola, to which only married (female) Roman citizens were entitled. . The tunic was fairly short and had short sleeves, the soldiers having exposed arms and legs. This dress can be observed on most military gravestones. It is likely that soldiers wore this sort of dress most of the time when not on campaign. In Roman military archaeology, it is usually called ‘camp dress’. Speidel 1976, 124; Bishop and Coulston 2006, 253. Coulston 2004, 142. See also the article of A.

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