Mount Etna: The anatomy of a volcano by D.K. Chester, A.M. Duncan, J.E. Guest, C. Kilburn

By D.K. Chester, A.M. Duncan, J.E. Guest, C. Kilburn

Because the moment global warfare curiosity within the energetic through Italian geophysicists; reports of floor deform­ volcano Mount Etna, in Sicily, has been gradually ation by means of British and Italian teams; measurements expanding. This curiosity has now not been constrained of microgravity alterations relatively through a British to Italy, and scientists from Belgium, France, crew; endeavours to enhance analytical tech­ Germany, the USA and the United King­ niques for gases and sublimates through French and in addition dom have performed an element in volcanological stories. Italian and British employees; pioneering paintings on In 1972 a lot of this paintings used to be drawn jointly at a rheology of lavas and progress of lava fields via dialogue assembly convened by means of the Royal Society British scientists; and enormously stronger surveil­ of London and attended by means of representatives of so much lance of job, significantly that happening within the summit sector. of the tasks that have been being performed on Etna. The assembly served to attract jointly present it's a significant goal of this e-book to synthesize the data of Etna, specially details derived result of those many alternative experiences right into a extra through the 1971 flank eruption, and likewise to indicate whole realizing of the volcano. necessarily out deficiencies in wisdom and strategies of the assurance is just a little asymmetric; a few fields of method of investigating the volcano. In his examine were researched extra completely than beginning assertion to the assembly Professor A. others.

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JJ 0 Etna and the Etna region 41 (Durbin, 1981). Most of the island receives mean annual totals of 600 - 700 mm (King, 1973a), but great variations may occur from year to year and between different parts of the island. Because most rainfall is depressional, being derived from the north and north-west, there is a general decline in totals towards the south and south-east; however altitude is also important and these two factors combine to give annual means in excess of 1000 mm along the northern mountains and on the higher slopes of Etna.

Alflo Zafferana Adrano 550 590 589 the relative aridity of the north, north-west and west sectors of the volcano (Affronti, 1967; Durbin and Henderson-Sellers, 1981). Two reasons may be advanced to account for this pattern. In the first place air masses bringing rain in winter have increased instability due to their forced ascent over the northern mountains and because the lower northern slopes lie in the lee of these mountains a rain shadow occurs. As Durbin (1981) notes, however, it is reasonable to assume that rainfall again increases on the upper slopes of the northern side.

The main effect of these anthropogenic land-use and the vegetation changes has been to reduce storage capacity and so increase runoff in winter and make summer discharges even smaller. It is also notable that as well as reducing the effectiveness of annual rainfall, land-use practices have also produced much alluviation within the river valleys of the island (Vita-Finzi, 1969, 1975; Delano-Smith, 1979). The hydrology of Etna is quite different from that of the rest of Sicily. , 1981). , 1979), which means that Etna acts as a 'gigantic sponge' with plenty of water available for plant growth.

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