By Cambridge ESOL
Those perform checks from Cambridge ESOL are designed to judge the English point of fundamental rookies elderly 7-12. they supply step one in the direction of the Cambridge ESOL major suite tests (including KET, puppy, and FCE). There are three units of exams for every of the three degrees: Cambridge Starters, Cambridge Movers and Cambridge Flyers. every one set comprises three full-colour assessments, a cassette/CD, and solution publication.
Read or Download Movers 5 Answer Booklet: Examination Papers from the University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations PDF
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Extra info for Movers 5 Answer Booklet: Examination Papers from the University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations
Rule 3. Splitting of three-consonant groups. When, as a result of the two preceding rules, a group of three consonants (or of two consonants, one of which is long) appears, schwa is inserted, unless this would lead to schwa in an open syllable. 7. An alternative solution would be to posit underlying schwa everywhere, in addition to vowel metathesis in all bases, a solution favoured by Jilali Sa¨ıb (Sa¨ıb 1994). According to this analysis, in those cases where the addition of suffixes leads to schwa in an open syllable, schwa is metathesized.
In his analysis, these extensions later became a third consonant Introduction 13 of the verbal root. This hypothesis has been criticized on the grounds that the thirtyseven extensions postulated by Ehret are too many (Zaborski (1991), as quoted in Kaye (1996)). In view of the fact that some contemporary Chadic languages of the Central branch have a dozen or more extensions each, the test of the validity of the hypothesis should be whether the postulated forms are morphologically distinct and whether they indeed carry the functions ascribed to them.
Although minimal pairs are relatively rare, there is no doubt as to the phonological nature of the opposition labialized–non-labialized. Compare Tashelhiyt igw ra ‘frogs’ vs igra ‘he threw’ (van den Boogert 1997: 243). While the labialization in ggw , the tense counterpart of w, is attested in many Berber variants and may very well be reconstructible to Proto-Berber, the labialization of short consonants is probably a secondary development. It has been suggested that it is a remnant of ancient short ∗ u˘ , which became schwa in these dialects but whose labial feature was taken over by neighbouring velars and uvulars (see Kossmann 1999: 42–59).