Optics textbook (lightandmatter) by Benjamin Crowell

By Benjamin Crowell

The sunshine and topic sequence of introductory physics textbooks is designed for the kind of one-year survey path taken by way of biology majors. subject matters comprise: The Ray version of sunshine, photos through mirrored image, photographs Quantitatively, Refraction, Wave Optics.

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As an experiment, (b), we try making the object closer — much much closer, so that even if our drawing isn’t perfectly accurate we’ll still get the right result for the change in the image’s location. ) Decreasing do has clearly made di smaller as well. There must be a cancellation of the effects of changing the two terms on the right in the same way, and the only way to get such a cancellation is if the two terms have opposite signs. ) Step 2: Now which is the positive term and which is negative?

A sample under lower pressure), but why would it not make sense for the index of refraction of a gas to be proportional to density? D. The earth’s atmosphere gets thinner and thinner as you go higher in altitude. If a ray of light comes from a star that is below the zenith, what will happen to it as it comes into the earth’s atmosphere? E. Does total internal reflection occur when light in a denser medium encounters a less dense medium, or the other way around? Or can it occur in either case? 2 Lenses Figures (a) and (b) show examples of lenses forming images.

B ) Suppose a Newtonian telescope is being used for astronomical observing. Assume for simplicity that no eyepiece is used, and assume a value for the focal length of the mirror that would be reasonable for an amateur instrument that is to fit in a closet. Is the angular magnification different for the moon than for a distant star? 4. (a) Find a case where the magnification of a curved mirror is infinite. Is the angular magnification infinite from any realistic viewing position? (b) Explain why infinite magnification can’t be achieved by having do=0.

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