By Edward D. Pittman, Michael D. Lewan
In may possibly of 1991, Victor Van Buren, who used to be then with Springer Verlag in long island urban, requested us for well timed issues within the earth sciences that may be applicable for book as a publication. all of us quick agreed that fresh curiosity and examine task at the position of natural acids in geological approaches might make a well timed ebook in this assorted and arguable subject. As coeditors, we defined bankruptcy subject matters for this sort of e-book that maintained an outstanding stability among geological and geochemical pursuits. particular authors have been then searched for all of the bankruptcy issues. We had unheard of good fortune in getting best researchers as authors, and their reaction used to be universally enthusiastic. This method has been such a lot pleasant in that it offers a solidarity and conciseness that's not continuously found in books representing compilations of papers from symposia. This ebook doesn't unravel the controver sies that exist in regards to the value of natural acids in geolog ical techniques. although, it does current either side of the controver sies when it comes to to be had facts and present interpretations. Readers may possibly pass judgement on for themselves and envisage learn essential to get to the bottom of those controversies sooner or later. We thank the authors of this ebook for his or her participation, commitment, and cooperation. we're additionally thankful for aid from Dr. Wolfgang Engel and his employees at Springer-Verlag (Heidelberg) in expediting the enhancing and book of this publication in a well timed manner.
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Additional resources for Organic Acids in Geological Processes
Alkalinity must also be measured at the site, or as soon after returning the sample to the laboratory as possible. It is not clear what effect shipping and storage have on carbonate alkalinity, but postsampling precipitation of sulfides and aluminum oxides may appreciably alter both the measured pH and measured alkalinity. Should an oil-water emulsion be collected, it should be filtered as above, and then allowed to stand in a separatory funnel or carboy for a few hours. If the emulsion persists, it is considered best to preserve the sample as below, and either allow the emulsion to break on its own with time, or use a centrifuge or surfactant/emulsion breaker in the laboratory.
The highest concentrations are present in relatively young basins at temperatures between approximately 80 and 140°C (Germanov and Mel'kanovitskaya 1975; Willey et al. 1975; Carothers and Kharaka 1978; Workman and Hanor 1985; Hanor and Workman 1986; Kharaka et al. D. K. Kharaka and Kharaka 1990; Lundegard and Trevena 1990; MacGowan and Surdam 1990). Geochemical interest in these organic species stems from their potential importance in water-rock interaction in sedimentary basins (Willey et a1. 1975; MacGowan and Surdam 1990), groundwaters (Thurman 1984), and hydrothermal systems (Simoneit 1984).
Data from Carothers and Kharaka (1978), Lundegard (1985), and Land (unpubl. :W W 0 « 900 O::E < ::i! a.. :. ;:01 o 10 20 30 40 50 600 60 RESERVOIR AGE (Mal Fig. 4. Average organic alkalinity between 80 and 120°C versus reservoir age for formation waters from the Gulf of Mexico Basin (after Lundegard and Land 1986). Regression line defines a psuedo-haif-life of approximately 60 Ma Distribution and Occurrence of Organic Acids in Subsurface Waters 47 greater than 200°C. K. Kharaka, unpubl. data). Early in the study of organic acids in subsurface waters it appeared that the distinction between these temperature zones was fairly distinct (Carothers and Kharaka 1978).