Origin and Mineralogy of Clays: Clays and the Environment by B. Velde (auth.), Dr. Bruce Velde (eds.)

By B. Velde (auth.), Dr. Bruce Velde (eds.)

Origin and Mineralogy of Clays, the 1st of 2 volumes, lays the basis for an intensive research of clays within the setting. quantity 2 will take care of Environmental interplay. Going from soils to sediments to diagenesis and hydrothermal alteration, the booklet covers the complete spectrum of clays. The chapters on floor environments are of serious relevance in regard to environmental difficulties in soils, rivers and lake-ocean occasions, exhibiting the best interplay among residing species and the chemical compounds of their habitat. The booklet is of curiosity to scientists and scholars engaged on environmental issues.

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Sample text

Substitutions of Al in the tetrahedral site range from 0 to 50%. 50 ions. Composition and Mineralogy of Clay Minerals 35 These substitutions give a compositional range in coordinates of the major composition elements Si-R3+-R2+ as shown in Fig. 16. Chlorite compositions as plotted in the compositional variables of Si, R3+ and R2+ ions where R3+ can be Al or Fe3+ and R2+ can be Mg or Fe2+. Minor substitution of other ions such as Ni, Zn etc. can also occur, and under certain circumstances they become major components.

In the first case we speak of a trioctahedral structure, in the second of a dioctahedral structure, referring to the number of ions found in the three octahedral sites. This is a major subdivision of the clay minerals, defining their composition and hence their origin. The trivalent ions (usually AP+ and Fe3+) correspond to specific conditions of chemical potential, and hence form minerals under specific geological and environmental conditions. The same is of course true of trioctahedral minerals.

Preference of the clay for one dissolved species over another, is of great importance to the fate of material as it passes in contact with clays. Some ions are specifically selected onto the clays above their concentration ratio in solution, and hence the clays can be used to capture a specific ion in solution relative to other ions present. This effect is cation selectivity. It should be mentioned here that not only cations in aqueous solution can be fixed on the clay surfaces or in internal sites.

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